A gastroscopy is an endoscopic examination of your stomach. On the way we examine your oesophagus ( food-pipe) which runs from your throat, through your chest, and into your stomach. We also examine beyond your stomach into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A gastroscopy is usually done to figure out the cause of abdominal symptoms, such as, epigastric pain, indigestion, heartburn, difficulty swallowing and abdominal distension. Spraying of the throat and/or sedation is used so that the procedure is not too uncomfortable. Your blood oxygen level and pulse are usually monitored via a probe on your finger. The procedure usually takes less than 5 minutes.
Appendicectomy is an operation done remove a diseased appendix. The operation is done through three small cuts on the belly through which a telescope and others operating instruments are passed. The appendix is identified and freed from surrounding essential intestine. Once clearly freed, it is divided at its base and any bleeding stopped. Any associated pus collection is thoroughly washed out. The appendix is then removed through one of the wounds, and the wounds are then stitched up. If the operation cannot be completed laparoscopically, it is then changed over into an open procedure which requires a longer cut or incision in the lower abdomen.
Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication
The laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication operation is performed to relieve
Symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Reflux may be associated
with an hiatus hernia. A hiatus hernia simply means a gap/opening where the food-pipe passes the diaphragm. In this case, the stomach bulges through a hiatus up into your chest. Sometimes
the stomach gets stuck within the chest. The aim of the operation is to bring the stomach down
from the chest and tighten the diaphragm around the food-pipe to stop the acid reflux. Five small incisions are made on the belly through which the telescope/laparoscope is part together with the other instruments to perform the operation.. Part of the stomach (fundus) is wrapped around
the oesophagus to prevent acid from refluxing back into the oesophagus. The instruments are
withdrawn and the incisions are closed. In a small number of patients (approx. 5%) it may not be possible to operate via the laparoscope due to adhesions from previous operations, bleeding obscuring vision, awkward fatty tissue or other technical problems. It will then be necessary to
change over to the standard (open) operation.
A colonoscopy is a day-case procedure in which the inside of the large intestine, (colon and rectum) is examined flexible pipe with a camera at the tip to diagnose diseases affecting this part of the intestine. A colonoscopy is used to assess symptoms of the lower gastrointestinal tract such as a change in bowel habit (alternating constipation and diarrhoea), loss of weight, passing blood with stools and pencil-sized stools. Sedation becomes necessary with a colonoscopy as it can become too uncomfortable. Colonoscopy is also used in individuals without symptoms to detect colon cancer at an early stage so as to offer the patient the best chance at cure. These are individuals 45 years and older or any patient at high risk of developing colon cancer. In the latter group, the timing of the colonoscopy is guided by the risk factor and the colonoscopy may even be conducted at a younger age
Bowel resection is a procedure done to resect disease bowel. This is called small bowel resection when done for small bowel and colectomy/hemicolectomy when done for large bowel. The remaining bowel is either hand sewn or stapled back together to maintain continuity. Common diseases that necessitate this operation include cancer of the colon, diverticulitits and inflammatory bowel disease.